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Are e-cigarettes a safe alternative to smoking?
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Are e-cigarettes a safe alternative to smoking?

    An electronic cigarette is a battery-operated device that emits a vaporized solution to inhale. Usually, the solution contains nicotine. The aim is to provide the sensation of inhaling tobacco smoke, without the smoke.

    These devices have various names, including Vape 300 Kali Hisapan, e-hookahs, vaporizer cigarettes, vapes, and vape pens.

    They come in a range of shapes. Some look like USB drives and others look like pens, for example.

    Manufacturers market Vape 600 Kali Hisapan as tools for quitting or cutting down on smoking, but the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) class them as tobacco products.

    United States federal law does not allow the sale of tobacco products to people under the age of 21Trusted Source. However, a major concern about vaping is its attraction for young people.

    Vaping is popular among teens. In fact, it is now the most popularTrusted Source form of tobacco use among young people in the U.S., according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).

    Below, learn what Vape 800 Kali Hisapan contain, how they work, and what research indicates about their risks to health.

    In 2019, experts linked vaping with the appearance of a severe lung disease now known as e-cigarette, or vaping, product use-associated lung injury, or EVALI. By February 2020, doctors had confirmed 2,807Trusted Source cases and 68 deaths from this disease, according to the CDC. Investigations are ongoing.

    An e-cigarette is a device that may look like a cigarette, a cigar, a pipe, a pen, or a USB drive. The liquid inside may smell fruity, but it can have a high nicotine content.

    JUUL devices, for example, look like USB drives. They appeared on the U.S. market in 2015Trusted Source and are now the top-selling brand of e-cigarette in the country.

    There is concern about young people using JUUL. Refills come in flavors such as cool cucumber, mango, and mint, which may seem natural and harmless, but a single JUUL refill contains as much nicotine as a pack of 20 cigarettesTrusted Source.

    The electronic cigarette (e-cigarette), for many considered as a safe alternative to conventional cigarettes, has revolutionised the tobacco industry in the last decades. In e-cigarettes, tobacco combustion is replaced by e-liquid heating, leading some manufacturers to propose that e-cigarettes have less harmful respiratory effects than tobacco consumption. Other innovative features such as the adjustment of nicotine content and the choice of pleasant flavours have won over many users. Nevertheless, the safety of e-cigarette consumption and its potential as a smoking cessation method remain controversial due to limited evidence. Moreover, it has been reported that the heating process itself can lead to the formation of new decomposition compounds of questionable toxicity. Numerous in vivo and in vitro studies have been performed to better understand the impact of these new inhalable compounds on human health. Results of toxicological analyses suggest that e-cigarettes can be safer than conventional cigarettes, although harmful effects from short-term e-cigarette use have been described. Worryingly, the potential long-term effects of e-cigarette consumption have been scarcely investigated. In this review, we take stock of the main findings in this field and their consequences for human health including coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19).

    Electronic nicotine dispensing systems (ENDS), commonly known as electronic cigarettes or Vape 1000 Kali Hisapan, have been popularly considered a less harmful alternative to conventional cigarette smoking since they first appeared on the market more than a decade ago. E-cigarettes are electronic devices, essentially consisting of a cartridge, filled with an e-liquid, a heating element/atomiser necessary to heat the e-liquid to create a vapour that can be inhaled through a mouthpiece, and a rechargeable battery (Fig. 1) [1, 2]. Both the electronic devices and the different e-liquids are easily available in shops or online stores.

    Effect of the heating process on aerosol composition. Main harmful effects documented. Several compounds detected in e-cigarette aerosols are not present in e-liquids and the device material also seems to contribute to the presence of metal and silicate particles in the aerosols. The heating conditions especially on humectants, flavourings and the low-quality material used have been identified as the generator of the new compounds in aerosols. Some compounds generated from humectants (propylene glycol and glycerol) and flavourings, have been associated with clear airways impact, inflammation, impairment of cardiovascular function and toxicity. In addition, some of them are carcinogens or potential carcinogens

    The e-liquid typically contains humectants and flavourings, with or without nicotine; once vapourised by the atomiser, the aerosol (vapour) provides a sensation similar to tobacco smoking, but purportedly without harmful effects [3]. However, it has been reported that the heating process can lead to the generation of new decomposition compounds that may be hazardous [4, 5]. The levels of nicotine, which is the key addictive component of tobacco, can also vary between the commercially available e-liquids, and even nicotine-free options are available. For this particular reason, e-cigarettes are often viewed as a smoking cessation tool, given that those with nicotine can prevent smoking craving, yet this idea has not been fully demonstrated [2, 6, 7].

    Because e-cigarettes are combustion-free, and because most of the damaging and well-known effects of tobacco are derived from this reaction, there is a common and widely spread assumption that e-cigarette consumption or “vaping” is safer than conventional cigarette smoking. However, are they risk-free? Is there sufficient toxicological data on all the components employed in e-liquids? Do we really know the composition of the inhaled vapour during the heating process and its impact on health? Can e-cigarettes be used to curb tobacco use? Do their consumption impact on coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)? In the present review, we have attempted to clarify these questions based on the existing scientific literature, and we have compiled new insights related with the toxicity derived from the use of these devices.

    Effect of e-cigarette vapour versus conventional cigarette exposure: in vivo and in vitro effects

    Numerous studies have been performed to evaluate the safety/toxicity of e-cigarette use both in vivo and in in vitro cell culture.

    One of the first studies in humans involved the analysis of 9 volunteers that consumed Vape 1200 Kali Hisapan, with or without nicotine, in a ventilated room for 2 h [8]. Pollutants in indoor air, exhaled nitric oxide (NO) and urinary metabolite profiles were analysed. The results of this acute experiment revealed that e-cigarettes are not emission-free, and ultrafine particles formed from propylene glycol (PG) could be detected in the lungs. The study also suggested that the presence of nicotine in e-cigarettes increased the levels of NO exhaled from consumers and provoked marked airway inflammation; however, no differences were found in the levels of exhaled carbon monoxide (CO), an oxidative stress marker, before and after e-cigarette consumption [8]. A more recent human study detected significantly higher levels of metabolites of hazardous compounds including benzene, ethylene oxide, acrylonitrile, acrolein and acrylamide in the urine of adolescent dual users (e-cigarettes and conventional tobacco consumers) than in adolescent e-cigarette-only users (Table 1) [9]. Moreover, the urine levels of metabolites of acrylonitrile, acrolein, propylene oxide, acrylamide and crotonaldehyde, all of which are detrimental for human health, were significantly higher in e-cigarette-only users than in non-smoker controls, reaching up to twice the registered values of those from non-smoker subjects (Table 1) [9]. In line with these observations, dysregulation of lung homeostasis has been documented in non-smokers subjected to acute inhalation of e-cigarette aerosols [10].

    Little is known about the effect of vaping on the immune system. Interestingly, both traditional and e-cigarette consumption by non-smokers was found to provoke short-term effects on platelet function, increasing platelet activation (levels of soluble CD40 ligand and the adhesion molecule P-selectin) and platelet aggregation, although to a lesser extent with e-cigarettes [11]. As found with platelets, the exposure of neutrophils to e-cigarette aerosol resulted in increased CD11b and CD66b expression being both markers of neutrophil activation [12]. Additionally, increased oxidative stress, vascular endothelial damage, impaired endothelial function, and changes in vascular tone have all been reported in different human studies on vaping [13,14,15,16,17]. In this context, it is widely accepted that platelet and leukocyte activation as well as endothelial dysfunction are associated with atherogenesis and cardiovascular morbidity [18, 19]. In line with these observations the potential association of daily e-cigarettes consumption and the increased risk of myocardial infarction remains controversial but benefits may occur when switching from tobacco to chronic e-cigarette use in blood pressure regulation, endothelial function and vascular stiffness (reviewed in [20]). Nevertheless, whether or not e-cigarette vaping has cardiovascular consequences requires further investigation.

    More recently, in August 2019, the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) declared an outbreak of the e-cigarette or vaping product use-associated lung injury (EVALI) which caused several deaths in young population (reviewed in [20]). Indeed, computed tomography (CT scan) revealed local inflammation that impaired gas exchange caused by aerosolised oils from e-cigarettes [21]. However, most of the reported cases of lung injury were associated with use of e-cigarettes for tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) consumption as well as vitamin E additives [20] and not necessarily attributable to other e-cigarette components.

    On the other hand, in a comparative study of mice subjected to either lab air, e-cigarette aerosol or cigarette smoke (CS) for 3 days (6 h-exposure per day), those exposed to e-cigarette aerosols showed significant increases in interleukin (IL)-6 but normal lung parenchyma with no evidence of apoptotic activity or elevations in IL-1β or tumour necrosis factor-α (TNFα) [22]. By contrast, animals exposed to CS showed lung inflammatory cell infiltration and elevations in inflammatory marker expression such as IL-6, IL-1β and TNFα [22]. Beyond airway disease, exposure to aerosols from e-liquids with or without nicotine has also been also associated with neurotoxicity in an early-life murine model [23].
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#2
Такая отрасль, как современная медицина развивается очень стремительно в настоящее время. Благодаря открытиям, которые были совершены за последние несколько лет, помогли спасти жизни многочисленному числу людей. Роль медицины сложно переоценить, особенно сейчас, когда начали появляться неизвестные ранее заболевания, и с ними необходимо бороться любой ценой.
Борьба за человека
Нет такого направления в медицине, которое можно было бы считать неважным. Специалисты нередко связыват сразу несколько в одну. К ним смело можно отнести наркологию, это так называемая отрасль психиатрии, которая исследует систему возникновения, развития и процесса лечения разных зависимостей от вредных веществ.
Каждый человек может в любой из пагубной привычки получить вполне серьезную зависимость. Существует некий список самых опасных и известных:
" алкоголизм;
" наркомания;
" табакокурение;
" лудомания;
" зависимость от компьютера.
От этих зависимостей избавиться очень трудно, поэтому очень важно, чтобы специалист - нарколог обладал не только навыками практикующего врача, но и являлся очень хорошим психологом.
Обратиться за наркологической помощью сегодня несложно, так как существует много лечебных учреждений, где предлагают такие услуги. Однако лучше останавливать свой выбор на тех, что готовы предложить сразу весь комплекс услуг. Как правило, в заведениях подобного профиля работают специалисты, имеющие значительный опыт работы и способные оказать клиентам квалифицированную помощь.
Профессионал высокого уровня знает, что в работе использовать только медикаментозные методы лечения неэффективно, важно подключать и психологические.Психологический строится на том, чтобы воздействовать на психику пациента. Его эффективность достаточно высока, однако для успешного лечения обязательно потребуется стойкое желание пациента избавиться от зависимости. Второй метод применяется тогда, когда первый не дал желаемого результата или, когда пациент сам изъявил желание сразу начать с него.
Кроме того, в числе основных направлений деятельности подобных заведений находятся:
" лечение гипнозом
" психиатрия;
" психотерапия;
" разработка программ восстановления от наркомании и алкоголизма;
" клинические исследования.
Следует добавить, что оказание помощи предоставляется в условиях полной анонимности. также нередко врач-нарколог выезжает на вызов по адрезу нахождения пациента, что очень удобно.
Благородная миссия
Практически каждая женщина тщательно следит за своим репродуктивным здоровьем. Ведь от этого напрямую зависит развитие общества в дальнейшем.
Гинекология - как раз тот раздел медицины, который занимается исключительно лечением болезней, характерных только для женского организма. Его нормальное функционирование - залог отсутствия проблем, связанных с беременностью и родами.
Лучшие условия для предотвращения и лечения гинекологических заболеваний сегодня предоставляют специализированные клиники этого профиля. В них работает квалифицированный персонал, имеющий огромный практический опыт. Кроме того, оборудование таких клиник во многих случаях находится на уровне мировых стандартов и позволяет успешно внедрять самые передовые методы лечения заболеваний.
Еще одним востребованным достоинством подобных медицинских центров считается то, что в одном месте можно сразу найти и других не менее важных специалистов:
" гинеколог;
" эндокринолог;
" невролог;
" маммолог;
" терапевт.
Благодаря большому спросу со сторону пациенток женского рода, здесь можно не только готовиться к беременности, а также вести ее у одного из докторов на протяжении всего периода.
Также часто в такие клиники обращаются те, кому необходимо пройти обследование и последующее лечение от заболеваний, которые передаются половым путем. Современные частные учреждения дают возможность пройти обследование на выявление половых инфекций абсолютно анонимно, или же заказать комплексное обследование.
Во время прохождения лечения в стационаре пациентки обеспечиваются всем необходимым.Комфортные помещения, где есть вся необходимая мебель, а в таких условиях и реабилитироваться получится в несколько раз быстрее. Как правило, лечебный персонал таких клиник стремится установить с больными доверительные личные отношения. Не стоит переживать по поводу того, что какая-либо информация будет обнародована лечащим врачом.
Главными достоинствами подобных гинекологических центров принято считать:
" высококвалифицированные сотрудники;
" оборудованые самыми лучшими диагностическими приборами лаборатории;
" гарантии и правовая поддержка;
" строгая анонимность;
" круглосуточная информационная поддержка.
Ценовая полотика соответствует высокому уровню предоставления услуг.
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