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  The Advantages of Having Ceramic Fiber Paper in Your Corner
Posted by: gvbfgbnn - 11-26-2021, 01:26 AM - Forum: My Forum - No Replies

The Advantages of Having Ceramic Fiber Paper in Your Corner

        Ceramic fiber paper is a must-have for those who work in the manufacturing industry. It’s a type of the high temperature insulated paper that’s integral to many manufacturing functions. For one thing, ceramic fiber paper has a huge variety of applications — whether it’s protecting gaskets (like rope gaskets) from high temperatures or providing insulation — and there’s a range of grades and thermal conductivity, depending on what’s needed. If you’re looking to purchase ceramic fiber paper, we’re your best bet — we’ll discuss some of the benefits and applications that you might not have expected out of this material and what you should expect when ordering and handling it.

        The Basics of Ceramic Fiber Paper

        The primary hallmarks of the paper are that it’s white and odorless, made from alumnio-silicate fiber and put through a fiber washing process. It’s perfect for high temperature applications up to about 2300 degrees Fahrenheit, though some grades can withstand 2600 degrees Fahrenheit.

        Some paper is also made with the use of organic binders — this is typically done when a greater strength is needed or organic burnout won’t work well for the application the paper is needed in.
        What are Some of the Benefits of Using Ceramic Fiber Paper?

        One of the major benefits of using ceramic fiber paper is that it has a low thermal conductivity and doesn’t store much heat. It’s also thermal shock resistant and is resistant to most chemicals, which means it has a low corrosion rate. It’s great if you’re looking to die-cut or use automatic stamping and has a high dielectric strength as well.

        Another benefit to this type of paper is that it’s lightweight and uniform in its structure, which makes it a great type of insulation. It’s also flexible and fire-resistant!

        What Can Ceramic Fiber Paper Be Used For?

        This type of paper is most often used in insulation, heat seals, gaskets, lining, and stamping applications.


        It’s excellent in providing thermal and electrical insulation, refractory backup insulation, or insulating mufflers in vehicles. For high temperature or pressure applications, like ceramic or glass melting, furnaces, kilns, boilers, electrical insulation, and so forth, as well as aerospace purposes, ceramic fiber paper is integral to providing insulation, linings, gaskets, and seals.


        This paper can be used as a backup lining, hot top lining, or parting plane in a refractory lining, or be used as a lining for slumping.

        Heat Shielding

        For automotive and aerospace purposes, it can provide heat shielding functions and protect against fire, spark, or molten metal.


        Ceramic fiber paper can also help with metal clad brick gaskets or for any high temperature applications.


        As mentioned above, it’s also useful for die-cuts and automatic stamping, filtering high temperatures, or wrapping pipes or metal castings that are at a high temperature.

        As demonstrated above, it’s a very versatile material and one that’s excellent to have on hand, regardless of the industry.

        Just like with about anything these days, there are a couple different ways to order. If you’d prefer to go in person and consult with a sales representative, there’s likely local distributors in your area who carry it and can assist you. However, it’s also possible to order it online — this can be especially useful if you need regular shipments or you’re placing a particularly large order. Some manufacturers may also offer a discount if you get a large amount.

        Most companies will also have a website where you can see what types of ceramic paper fiber they’re offering, its specs and properties, and the price, ahead of time.

        It is worth noting, however, that handling ceramic fiber paper does require protective gear. Gloves, cloths, and a mask should all be engaged when handling it and you should think about dust control measures as well.

        Don’t be without this versatile and important material today — find out what type of ceramic fiber products you need!

        A Summary of Aluminum Titanate

    At temperatures greater than 1350 °C, solid-state reaction of titania and alumina leads to the synthesis of aluminum titanate. Depending on its reactivity, the synthesized powder can be sintered at temperatures of 1400 °C–1600 °C in air. The crystal structure of aluminum titanate is pseudobrookite.

    Ceramics that are made from aluminum titanate exhibit excellent thermal shock resistance. This is mostly due to its extremely low thermal expansion coefficient caused by the substantial anisotropy in the material’s properties.

    Expansion along the a- and b-axes direction is positive, while the same in the c-axis direction is negative. Apart from producing almost zero thermal expansion, this causes microcracks in the sintered material, leading to moderately low material strength. SiO2 and MgO are additives used to prevent strength degradation. Strengths up to 100 MP have been specified for experimental materials.


    The material has excellent thermal shock resistance, low thermal conductivity, and optimal chemical resistance to molten metals. These properties enable the material (mainly aluminum) to satisfy several metal-contact applications in the foundry sector such as crucibles, plugs, riser tubes, ladles, launders, and pouring spouts.

    When compared to competing materials like calcium silicate and fused silica, components manufactured using aluminum titanate products have significantly longer service life.

    Moreover, aluminum titanate is utilized as an insulating liner in the automotive sector for exhaust manifolds, where there is a need to reduce heat loss before a turbocharger. In this article, the metal exhaust manifold is cast over the molded aluminum titanate liner. The difference in the thermal expansion between the steel and aluminum titanate manifold during cooling maintains the ceramic in compressed state. This helps in resolving the problems associated with its low strength.


    When ordering mica tubes, don’t envision a standard cylindrical tube.  Mica tubes can be customized in terms of shape, thickness, length, diameter, and material.  Since mica tubes are formed by multiple layers of mica paper, customizing mica tubes is very manageable.

    Silicon Nitride (Si3N4) Properties and Applications

    Silicon nitride (Si3N4) was developed in the 1960s and '70s in a search for fully dense, high strength and high toughness materials.  A prime driver for its development was to replace metals with ceramics in advanced turbine and reciprocating engines to give higher operating temperatures and efficiencies.  Although the ultimate goal of a ceramic engine has never been achieved, silicon nitride has been used in a number of industrial applications, such as engine components, bearings and cutting tools.

    Silicon nitride has better high temperature capabilities than most metals combining retention of high strength and creep resistance with oxidation resistance.  In addition, its low thermal expansion coefficient gives good thermal shock resistance compared with most ceramic materials.


    Pure silicon nitride is difficult to produce as a fully dense material.  This covalently bonded material does not readily sinter and cannot be heated over 1850oC as it dissociates into silicon and nitrogen.  Dense silicon nitride can only be made using methods that give bonding through indirect methods, such as small chemical additions to aid densification. These chemicals are known as sintering aids, which commonly induce a degree of liquid phase sintering.

    Alumina ceramic (Aluminum Oxide or Al2O3) is an excellent electrical insulator and one of the most widely used advanced ceramic materials. Additionally, it is extremely resistant to wear and corrosion. Alumina components are used in a wide range of applications such as electronics, pump components and automotive sensors.

    Elan Technology offers a variety of alumina compositions, including 94% Alumina Low CaO, 94% Alumina High CaO2, and 85% Alumina 14% SiO2, but the 96% Alumina Ceramic is one of the most widely used materials.

    Alumina components can be formed by a variety of manufacturing techniques such as uniaxial pressing, isostatic pressing, injection molding and extrusion. Finishing can be accomplished by precision grinding and lapping, laser machining and a variety of other processes.

    The alumina ceramic components produced by Elan Technology are suitable for metallization in order to create a component that is easily brazed with many materials in subsequent operations. Elan Technology offers a range of alumina compositions to meet your most demanding applications.

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  Why Superabrasives?
Posted by: gvbfgbnn - 11-26-2021, 01:23 AM - Forum: My Forum - No Replies

Why Superabrasives?

    Super abrasives are tools used in precision grinding. Superabrasive materials attach to a wheel to make Superabrasive grinding wheels. The reason some abrasives are Superabrasives is due to their extraordinary hardness, unparalleled performance, and longevity.


    Abrasives that belong to the Superabrasive family includes,Industrial diamonds: an industrial diamond is a non-gem quality small diamond that is for abrasives, cutting, and drilling tools.

    Cubic boron nitride (CBN): Usually called CBN it is the second hardest cutting tool material after a diamond.

    Polycrystalline: Is an abrasive material that has a multiple collection of crystal grain structures with individual orientations

    CVD Diamond: These are synthetic diamonds made by a process known as chemical vapor deposition.CVD diamonds grow from a hydrocarbon gas mixture. They are extremely hard, have a high thermal conductivity that is five times that of copper. They also have broadband optical transparency, are chemically inert, and only reach graphitization at very high temperatures.

    Nanodiamonds: These tiny diamonds are the product of a controlled explosion. Sometimes called a detonation nanodiamond (DND) or an ultradispersed diamond, as this is how they form.


    A great number of industries use Superabrasive grinding wheels and the coated abrasives subsection of the abrasives industry continues to grow. Industries that are prime buyers of Superabrasive grinding wheels are:






    Oil Industry


    The advantages of Superabrasive grinding wheels are more than extraordinary hardness, unparalleled performance, and longevity. These three features of Superabrasives are the core of many advantages manufacturers gain by an aggregation of services that normal abrasives simply cannot deliver.

    These include,

    Less expensive tooling and fixturing costs

    More wheels on the spindle, smaller wheels, multiple operations

    Less floor space needed for manufacturing

    Virtual elimination of wheel wear

    Automated CNC machines, less labor intensive operations requiring less training

    Consistent surface speed from part to part

    Better overall throughput with fewer machines needed

    Improved Material Removal Rates, Lower Per Part Abrasive Costs and higher speeds

    With Superabrasives, production increased by automated CNC equipment, industries have found one way to compensate for the lack of availability of skilled labor. With fewer machines needed, so is fewer workers. With Superabrasives CNC, automation is more concerned with defining a manufacturing process using machine capabilities and mechanization. There is less concern on operator technique. A properly defined process, combined with automatic loaders make for equipment that is almost running itself.


    Future growth of the abrasives industries will primarily be in Superabrasives. Currently, research and development of Superabrasives are taking place in the following areas:

    Custom designed “hard to grind”? materials in an increasing number of industries

    Creep or deep feed grinding

    High-speed, high-performance grinding of hardened steel

    Form grinding, sometimes with electroplating, in high precision, high-removal, and high-surface quality applications

    CNC-control of line grinding machines

    In a nanotwinned crystalline structure, neighboring atoms share a boundary, the way neighboring apartments do. And like some apartments, the twins mirror each other. Typically, to make a substance harder, scientists decrease the size of the grains, which makes it harder for anything to puncture it — small grains equals less space between them for any point to enter. But the process hit a wall: in anything smaller than about 10 nm, inherent defects or distortions are nearly as big as the grains themselves, and thus weakens the structure.

    But the nanotwinning also makes substances harder to puncture, and in the case of boron nitride, maintained that characteristic strength at sizes averaging about 4 nm, explains Tian. And as a bonus, the cubic boron nitride was stable at high temperatures as well.

    "In our nanotwinned cBN, the excellent thermal stability and chemical inertness are maintained with hardness competitive to or even more than diamond, making it the most desirable tool material for industry," says Tian.

    He anticipates that, with further research, the product will be comparable in price to the softer, commercial forms of cubic boron nitride that are currently available. Probable uses include machining, grinding, drilling and cutting tools, as well as scientific instrumentation.

    Articles About cutting tools

    1 Material Properties and Performance Considerations for High-Speed Steel Gear-Cutting Tools

    Users of gear-cutting tools probably do not often consciously consider the raw material from which those hobs, broaches or shavers are made. However, a rudimentary awareness of the various grades and their properties may allow tool users to improve the performance or life of their tools, or to address tool failures. The high-speed steel from which the tool is made certainly is not the only factor affecting tool performance, but as the raw material, the steel may be the first place to start.

    2 Cutting Tools Now

    The cutting tool is basic to gear manufacturing. Whether it's a hob, broach, shaper cutter or EDM wire, not much gets done without it. And the mission of the tool remains the same as always; removing material as quickly, accurately and cost-effectively as possible. Progress in the field tends to be evolutionary, coming gradually over time, but recently, a confluence of emerging technologies and new customer demands has caused significant changes in the machines, the materials and the coatings that make cutting tools.

    3 Cutting Tools Roundup

    The cutting tool industry has undergone some serious changes in the last couple of years in both technology and the way the industry does business. The emerging technology today, as well as for the foreseeable future, is dry cutting, especially in high volume production settings. Wet cutting continues to be as popular as ever with lubrication advances making it more economical and environmentally friendly. There has also developed a process called "near dry cutting." this process offers many of the benefits of fluids while eliminating many of hte associated problems.

    4 Big Gears Better and Faster

    Indexable carbide insert cutting tools for gears are nothing new. But big gears have recently become a very big business. The result is that there's been a renewed interest in carbide insert cutting tools.

    5 High Speed Steel: Different Grades for Different Requirements

    Hobs, broaches, shaper cutters, shaver cutters, milling cutters, and bevel cutters used in the manufacture of gears are commonly made of high speed steel. These specialized gear cutting tools often require properties, such as toughness or manufacturability, that are difficult to achieve with carbide, despite the developments in carbide cutting tools for end mills, milling cutters, and tool inserts.

    When considering the use of CBN (cubic boron nitride) grains in an aerospace part grinding process, the first questions that come to mind may be associated with the grinding conditions and machine capabilities. It’s commonly assumed that CBN grinding wheels need very specific operating conditions that only a re-tooled or new machine can achieve. It’s also typical to think that those conditions are completely different from the ones used by conventional grinding wheels. However, depending on the bond system, some of the conditions may resemble those suitable for conventional wheels.

    The first thing to determine when considering a CBN wheel is whether it will bring any advantage to the current process. A cost analysis should be completed to make this determination. In other words, how many parts can be ground using the CBN wheel and what is the cost? This information can be used to make a cost/piece analysis, which can be used for comparison to the current wheel (usually a conventional wheel) to determine if there is value in incorporating the CBN wheel. After cost justifying the use of a CBN wheel, it is helpful to look at the different bond options in order to optimize the grinding process.

    The most common bond systems for CBN wheels are resin, vitrified and electroplated matrixes. Depending on the grinding conditions, each system has its own unique requirements which will allow the wheel to achieve optimal performance.


    Features: Resin is a bond that gives up easily and it is the most forgiving bond among all. One downside of this bond is that resin does not do well if the grinding conditions generate too much heat. Since the CBN grain is held in place by a mechanical method, a resin bond tends to release the CBN grain before it dulls, so the wheel will keep its cutting ability, but may never use the CBN grain completely.

    Dressing Conditions: The wheel can be dressed outside or inside the machine. It is usually done by using another grinding wheel such as silicon carbide, which trues the CBN wheel slowly. A white stick made of Alox could be used to open the structure again after truing the wheel.

    Grinding Conditions: Resin bonded wheels can be run wet or dry. The wheel speeds range from 30 to 40 m/s when using coolant, and from 10 to 15 m/s when running in dry conditions without the use of coolant. However, running a dry process can have a negative effect on wheel life.

    Cost: The cost of the wheel is based not only on the CBN concentration and wheel size, but also on the thickness of the abrasives layer (usable layer). In many cases it is possible to reuse the core of the wheel, but that can depend on the size of the wheel and if the core material is reusable, such as steel. In some cases the actual technology or manufacturing process doesn’t allow for reuse.

    The History Of Diamond Jewelry

    We all know that diamonds have been here longer than we have, but when exactly were they first discovered? More importantly, when were they first used for jewelry? By taking a quick look at the history of diamonds we will be able to learn a bit more about how diamond jewelry came to be.

    India – Where it All Began

    Diamonds are located all around the world, but for our intents and purposes, our story begins in India. This is because the first diamond is believed to have originated from this particular country. At the time, they were valued not for their beauty or durability but for they’re ability to refract light. This made them ideal for talismans and decorations. As the times changed, diamonds were sought out for different purposes. During the Dark Ages people believed that diamonds had medicinal value. The diamond later evolved from a medicinal object into an item of value during the Middle Ages.

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  Pressure Leaf Filters
Posted by: gvbfgbnn - 11-26-2021, 01:21 AM - Forum: My Forum - No Replies

Pressure Leaf Filters

                                        For more than a century, pressure leaf filters have provided an economic, reliable and proven cake filtration solution for liquids with higher solid loads, between 0.01% – 3%. These highly effective systems consist of pressure vessels containing individual ‘filter leaves’ supported on a manifold.

                                        Liquid is pumped into the pressure leaf filter vessel where it is pushed through the filter leaves, exiting the vessel via the manifold. Solids are retained and form a filter cake on the leaves. When filtration is complete, the filter is drained, leaving the cake on the filter leaves. Depending on the application, the cake can then be sluiced off the leaves or dried and then discharged by a pneumatic vibrator.

                                        Our range of Envi Leaf pressure leaf filters are perfect for both dry and wet cake discharge, in both vertical and horizontal vessel orientations. We provide a range of filter meshes for every filtration step in edible oil production, gelatine processing, liquid sulphur filtration and bio-diesel production. Our top-gauze filter leaves, such as our PZ80, 60 mesh, 24×110 Dutch weave, are ideal for these high-demand industries and are constructed from 316L or 904L stainless steel.

                                        Typical markets and applications include:

                                        Edible oil processing (crude oil, bleached oil, winterised oil)

                                        Gelatine processing

                                        Pectin processing

                                        Glucose, sweeteners, sugar, fruit juice production

                                        Bio-diesel production (pre-treatment and polishing)

                                        Liquid sulphur filtration

                                        Chemicals and oleochemicals

                                        Organic and inorganic salts, amines, resins and bulk drugs

                                        Pressure leaf filter solutions for dry or wet cake discharge

                                        Our range of Envi Leaf pressure leaf filters are designed and engineered using the latest technology to greatly improve cake discharge properties. Envi Leaf long-lasting filter elements require less maintenance and fewer changeovers and repairs, which leads to reduced operational costs, increased productivity and higher filtration efficiency.

                                        Vertical pressure leaf filter

                                        This vertical pressure leaf filter is equipped with vertical, rectangular filter leaves. The filter leaves are mounted vertically and connected to a filtrate manifold at the bottom of the filter tank. For dry cake discharge, a vibrator is used to remove the cake from the filter leaves when the filtration process is complete.

    Horizontal pressure leaf filter

    Horizontal pressure leaf filters contain filter leaves positioned vertically in a horizontal filter tank. These filters can have a large filtration area and enable visual cake inspection after every cake discharge. An optional vibrator installation can be installed for cake discharge.

    Envi Leaf pressure leaf filters deliver:

    Space-saving, compact design – these compact systems achieve high flow rates and operate at pressures of up to four bars.

    Long-life filter leaves and filter mesh – constructed from five layers (ply) of stainless-steel wire mesh, each internal filter leaf is designed for long-life. Reduced maintenance requirements mean a low total cost of ownership and each leaf offers years of service.

    High-efficiency – with excellent pre-coating properties.

    Adaptability – Envi Leaf pressure leaf filters can be sized according to your application – with vertical vessels ranging from 5m2 to 125m2.

    Multi-purpose – one system can be used at multiple stages in the filtration process, customised by the mesh and the structure of the filter leaves within.

    Quicker discharge – our air vibration system ensures quick and easy cake discharge. With fast drying processes, we ensure the minimum amount of liquid wastage during cleaning cycles.

    Enhanced robust design – our enhanced nozzle has a unique u-shaped profile and is enclosed within a manifold. This design creates a strong bond with the tank, delivers a smooth flow and prevents damage during cleaning.

    Safe operating – the completely closed filter body ensures safe operating conditions at high temperature.

    Order pressure leaf filter spare parts with our flexible stocking programme

    A safe and secure supply of spare parts and replacements is an essential part of any manufacturing operation. With our flexible stocking programmes and technical expertise and advice, we’ll ensure delivery of spare parts and replacements when you need them, minimising interruption to your production cycle. We will work with you to develop a stocking system to meet your needs. Spare parts for pressure leaf filters can be held on your site or we can provide immediate dispatch from our warehouses for fast delivery.

    Tailored filtration solutions to meet your needs

    Selecting the right pressure leaf filter technology for your application will depend on many factors like the flow rate, continuous or batch processing, the type and amount of solid load, the nature of the liquid, the temperature and the liquid viscosity.

    Premature screen failure

    One of the most common problems that operators face with their vibrating separator is premature screen failure. Vibratory separator screens are considered a wear item in that they’ll eventually wear out and need replacing. Unfortunately, a screen’s life is dependent upon many variables, such as the material type it comes into contact with, any environmental extremes, cleaning methods used with it, etc., so it’s not easy to say how long a separator screen should last without taking those factors into consideration. However, you should get plenty of use out of your screen before needing to replace it.

    Delamination. There are many possible causes for premature screen failure. If a screen is delaminating or separating into layers on the tension ring, this could indicate a temperature issue. Every screen manufacturers’ temperature limits differ for epoxy-mounted screens. Some limits are as low as 120oF (49oC) while others are as high as 200oF (93oC). If the material temperature exceeds the screen’s limit, the epoxy will begin to weaken and fail, causing the screen to delaminate. The pH level of the materials being processed also needs to be taken into account, as it affects the screen. Materials with a high pH level of 10 or more tend to decrease the epoxy’s temperature resistance, causing a screen to delaminate even at temperatures within the manufacturer’s given limits. If you think you might encounter this problem because your process requires separating materials at a high temperature greater than the screen manufacturer’s limits, consider using a welded screen if possible. A welded screen can withstand temperatures up to 400oF (204oC). This screen type isn’t always an option for food and other sanitary applications, so be sure to speak with the screen manufacturer to find out about other options; however, these same issues can occur with differing screen types.

    Breakage. The center of the separator screen is another focal point for premature failure. To minimize the risk of screen failure at the center of the screen, there are a few things that should be checked. If working with a larger screen that uses a center tie-down, ensure that the tie-down is holding the screen level. An unlevel screen could put unwanted stress on the mesh around the center disc, causing the screen to tear. Also, make sure the center tie-down assembly is tightened properly. The assembly should only be tightened after the exterior clamp ring assembly is seated and fully torqued. If tightened incorrectly, this too could put added stress on the screen mesh, leading to early screen failure. The screen’s center should also be watched to ensure material doesn’t congregate there. If this happens, the screen mesh will wear at that point, leading to breakage. An incorrect lead angle is the likeliest cause of center congregation. The lead angle is the number of degrees separating the motor shaft’s bottom weight assembly resultant force and the top weight assembly resultant force. To fix an incorrect lead angle, the weight settings and lead angle need to be adjusted to move the materials off the screen. Another common reason for center screen failure is a feed surge to the screen. When this occurs, the screen’s center is flooded with material, and the weight of the material compromises the integrity of the mesh, causing the screen to tear or wear out. To eliminate this possibility, the vertical drop of the feed can be reduced for dry applications or a velocity reducer can be installed for wet applications, including slurries.

    What Are the Benefits Dewatering Equipment?

    Adding dewatering equipment can effectively remove moisture from the final product and capture tiny particles in the wastewater, resulting in drier material. In addition, the removed water can be efficiently recycled back through the manufacturing or processing plant. No matter the industry, the overarching goal of dewatering screens is to deliver the cleanest possible filtrate and driest possible solids.

    In addition to creating a drier material, using dewatering equipment offers a range of other benefits. For starters, dewatered material is much easier to handle and can lead to cost savings in transportation.

    Material that is dewatered also reduces the drying time of the stockpile, which can free up valuable space at your facility. In some instances, dewatering equipment can reduce or outright eliminate the need for a settling pond. Sand dewatering equipment can lower the amount of material designed for a settling pond.

    How Does a Dewatering Screen Work?

    The dewatering screen design is relatively simple. The majority of dewatering screen systems utilize two counter-rotating vibrating motors, while some utilize twin eccentric shafts. At the same time, other types of dewatering screens employ multiple mechanical exciters on larger machines that are mounted on a stressed relieved bridge. The drive component is typically set up with an inclined deck that may be set anywhere from three to five degrees. Here’s how dewatering screens work to reduce the water content of slurries:

    The slurry of water and solids is sent down a declined, steeply screened surface to achieve rapid drainage.

    When the slurry passes over the screens, water is drained from the mixture and creates a pool in the valley.

    As the slurry moves through the system, it is taken back up an incline. The screens continuously vibrate throughout the process to help additional water separate from the solution.

    An uphill slope of the screen surface can be combined with a discharge weir to create a deep bed that functions as a filter medium. This allows for even finer solids to be screened out.

    If you would like an even more refined, cleaner product, you can use a rinsing station along the pathway. The sand dewatering equipment can remove the water used for rinsing just as it separates the water from the slurry.

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  Car Polishing: Ceramic Coating vs Paint Protection Film
Posted by: gvbfgbnn - 11-26-2021, 01:16 AM - Forum: My Forum - No Replies

Car Polishing: Ceramic Coating vs Paint Protection Film

    Motorist takes a closer look at what car polishing, Ceramic Coating, and Car Paint Protection Film do for you, and sees if there's more to them than meets the eye.

    During the recent Circuit Breaker, many car owners were left wondering if they were permitted to wash their cars within HDB compounds. It is evident that we Singaporean drivers really pride ourselves in ensuring our vehicles look good despite not being able to leave our homes.

    A common method to give your car a lasting shine with minimal maintenance would be to send it to a car detailer for a good polish. When it comes to car polishing, most drivers would be familiar with the common terms like Ceramic Coating and Paint Protection Film (PPF). However, what drivers are unlikely to know is that giving your car a good polish does more for your car than simply enhancing its aesthetic features.

    Let’s take a closer look at what each of these applicants does for your car to see if there are more to them than meets the eye.

    Something all vehicle owners want is for their ride to look brand new and shiny - like it never left the showroom floor. This can be achieved with Ceramic Coating, a coating that only needs to be applied once, which bonds to the surface of your vehicle’s paint, greatly enhancing its ability to withstand the harsh weather and environmental conditions of Singapore’s roads.

    Additionally, Ceramic Coating reduces the effort needed in maintaining your car to look brand new, as it allows for easier cleaning while increasing your vehicle’s shine. Vehicle owners will know the dilemma of finding a minor scratch on their beloved vehicle, yet choose to put up with the ugliness as repairing it will cost a substantial amount. However, you will be pleased to find out that with a good quality Ceramic Coat, minor scratches may be removed with a thorough polish.

    Ceramic Coating, however, is not a full-proof solution for your car’s grooming needs as it does not improve your vehicles toughness to withstand more severe injuries like rock chips - very commonly faced by Singaporean drivers as we share the roads with big trucks.

    Paint Protection Film (PPF)

    If your goal is to protect your vehicle from scratches and rock chips - something Ceramic Coating is not capable of, then PPF is what you’re looking for. PPF, though costing slightly more than Ceramic Coating, is a military grade film that greatly enhances your vehicle's resistance to foreign objects, something Ceramic Coating is not capable of. Additionally, PPF has self-healing properties that protects your paint from rock chips, contaminants and scratches, as scars will dissipate over time with heat.

    PPF sadly reduces your vehicle’s shine however, and should only be applied by a professional as untrained application may potentially damage the body of your vehicle, which will be very costly to remedy. PPF application does not mean lower maintenance effort on the vehicle owner's part, as it is advised that PPF be replaced after a few years of usage.

    QMI ToughGuard Paint Protection Singapore

    It seems then that vehicle owners will constantly face a dilemma between making their car aesthetically pleasing and actually trying to protect their vehicles… well, you’re wrong!

    Quick to identify a solution to this problem back in 1998, QMI ToughGuard Paint Protection Singapore became the only detailer to introduce QMI's marine grade products which utilises Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) technology to our shores.

    Now, you may be wondering what PTFE, a chemical compound, is capable of doing for your vehicle. Since PTFE is highly durable, transparent and non-stick, it will result in the body of your vehicle being extremely smooth to the touch. Vehicle owners will additionally be able to say goodbye to rainwater stains as the hydrophobic quality of PTFE makes it a very effective water repellant, causing water droplets to simply flow off the body of your car!

    Once QMI's PTFE products are applied, ToughGuard Nano Surface Protection is applied as a final protective layer. This results in the formation of a protective layer over the body of your vehicle that is hard and transparent, creating a hardness that goes beyond the strength of 9H thickness coatings!

    QMI ToughGuard Paint Protection Singapore ensures your vehicle has a smooth surface that retains shine and resists environmental contaminants. This allows you to have a fuss-free maintenance regime for your vehicle as all you need to do is to wash your vehicle with water at least once a month and dirt can simply be wiped with a cloth!

    With forecasts of heavy downpour over the coming weeks, why not give them a try as your car will still look good despite the unpredictable weather of Singapore!

    5 Things Window Film Can Do For Your Building

    Large banks of windows are a popular building amenity, but the extra daylight can seem like a double-edged sword on sunny days.

    Plentiful daylight is generally healthy for occupants and can contribute to productivity, but can also result in distracting glare and an influx of heat that’s expensive to manage.

    Retrofitting your existing windows with window film can help you achieve your energy, aesthetic and productivity goals at a fraction of the cost of a window replacement, according to Darrell Smith, executive director of the International Window Film Association.

    Investigate these five ways window film could benefit your building.

    1) Less Glare and Lower Bills

    Some window films can block different parts of the solar spectrum to minimize glare, heat and dangerous UV rays, Smith explains.

    Sunlight contains three parts:

            Ultraviolet radiation – the part that contributes to skin cancer and fades interiors. This section makes up about 3 percent of the sunlight spectrum, according to Smith.

            Visible light – literally, the part that you see. This section is about 44 percent of the total and is responsible for causing glare.

            Near infrared light – which is invisible but contributes to heat gain. This makes up the other 53 percent of the spectrum.

    Understanding the difference between these qualities is key to selecting the right window film if solar control is a priority, Smith explains.

    “Products today will block 65 percent of the heat and allow 65 percent visibility,” Smith says. “Think of the windshield of a car. They’re equipped with factory-tinted glass that looks almost clear, and by law that can’t be darker than 70 percent visibility. This window film is almost that light but would block 65 percent of the heat coming through because it has high infrared reflectance.”

    Large banks of windows are a popular building amenity, but the extra daylight can seem like a double-edged sword on sunny days.

    Plentiful daylight is generally healthy for occupants and can contribute to productivity, but can also result in distracting glare and an influx of heat that’s expensive to manage.

    Retrofitting your existing windows with window film can help you achieve your energy, aesthetic and productivity goals at a fraction of the cost of a window replacement, according to Darrell Smith, executive director of the International Window Film Association.

    Investigate these five ways window film could benefit your building.

    1) Less Glare and Lower Bills

    Some window films can block different parts of the solar spectrum to minimize glare, heat and dangerous UV rays, Smith explains.

    Sunlight contains three parts:

            Ultraviolet radiation – the part that contributes to skin cancer and fades interiors. This section makes up about 3 percent of the sunlight spectrum, according to Smith.

            Visible light – literally, the part that you see. This section is about 44 percent of the total and is responsible for causing glare.

            Near infrared light – which is invisible but contributes to heat gain. This makes up the other 53 percent of the spectrum.

    Understanding the difference between these qualities is key to selecting the right window film if solar control is a priority, Smith explains.

    “Products today will block 65 percent of the heat and allow 65 percent visibility,” Smith says. “Think of the windshield of a car. They’re equipped with factory-tinted glass that looks almost clear, and by law that can’t be darker than 70 percent visibility. This window film is almost that light but would block 65 percent of the heat coming through because it has high infrared reflectance.”

    Films with high insulating values keep heat in your building in the winter and seal in air conditioning in the summer so that you’re not paying to condition the whole neighborhood. Some can also reflect infrared light back into the room to help heat it, giving you additional winter savings.

    “Standard window film products still make up the majority of window films sold,” says Smith. “There’s a lot of single-pane or clear dual-pane glass that was installed 20 to 40 years ago that needs better energy control or an aesthetic upgrade. Just by tinting that window, you can save as much as 30 percent in the summer months.”

    2) Customized Reflection and Transmission

    Dual reflective films have made a big splash in the last five years thanks to the flexibility they offer building occupants, Smith explains.

    “On the outside of the building, you may want a reflective bronze look, but people on the inside of the building looking out may not want to see a bronze color,” Smith says. “The interior may be blues or grays. Manufacturers can change the reflectance and transmission values so that you see different colors depending on which side of the glass you’re on.”

    3) Aesthetic Benefits and Branding

    Window film with decorative patterns is growing in both variety and popularity, Smith says.

    “You can now get window films that look like frosted or stained glass or that has a bamboo-style pattern. Some patterns are actually screen-printed into the film itself to accent a window. Those same films can be specified with or without energy control or in a thick version that holds glass together whenever the glass breaks.”

    In my country, the pace of architectural film started relatively late, and the intensity of development is not very strong, but with the continuous improvement of the economy, this trend is constantly approaching. In fact, architectural film has become a common product in the construction industry abroad, and its application has become universal. However, due to economic constraints, my country’s acceptance of it was relatively late. It was not introduced until the late 1980s to the early 1990s. At the beginning, its development speed was relatively slow, until the energy began to light up. At that time, people began to have a new understanding of architectural membranes, and it was at this time that it began to be applied to buildings, coupled with its unique characteristics such as: individual performance can be adapted to the different needs of different people , Which can better reflect the needs of people.

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  How Your Cashmere Is Made
Posted by: gvbfgbnn - 11-26-2021, 01:13 AM - Forum: My Forum - No Replies

How Your Cashmere Is Made

    One of the rarest natural fibers in the world, cashmere's not a wool but a hair, which accounts for its unmistakable feel. With fast-fashion chains such as Uniqlo and Joe Fresh selling discount product in bulk, it's hard to tell the good stuff from the junk

    Where It’s From

    Most cashmere comes from goats in the Gobi Desert, which stretches from Northern China into Mongolia. Beneath the animals’ coarse hair lies an undercoat of superfine fibers concentrated on the underbelly. In May and June, when the goats molt, local workers comb the belly hair, sort it by hand, and send it to a dehairing facility (usually in China) to be cleaned and refined. Then it’s baled and delivered to Europe, where it’s spun into fine yarn and sold to designers for roughly $114 a pound. With adequate supplies of top-notch raw materials becoming scarce in Asia, Afghanistan has become an unlikely exporter: The country is rich in unadulterated product. As China increasingly blends different qualities of cashmere to achieve volume, Afghan goat farmers are filling the demand for completely pure knits.

    Buying Tips

    1. Check the Weight
A garment made of two plies, meaning it was knitted from double strands of yarn, or more, will often be longer-lasting. The heavier the sweater, the warmer (and more expensive) it will be.

    2. Beware of Pilling
Premium cashmere is made from the long hairs of goats—and it’s combed, never sheared. Shearing yields shorter fibers that are prone to pilling. Before you buy, rub the surface of a garment with the palm of your hand and see if fibers begin to roll up and/or shed. This is an indication that there’s excess short-fiber content.

    3. Look for a Tight Knit
Durable cashmere is tightly woven. If the construction feels loose, the garment will lose its shape quickly. Gauge quality by holding a piece up to the light—if you can see through, it probably won’t be wearable for longer than a season.

    4. Consider the Color
Heavily dyed fiber loses some of its softness. Chinese white from Inner Mongolia is regarded as the finest-quality cashmere because it’s not subjected to coloring or bleach. Outer Mongolia is developing a niche in natural cashmere in camel and brown hues.

    5. Read the Label
A garment labeled 70 percent cashmere/30 percent wool frequently contains no more than 5 percent cashmere. The U.S. Federal Trade Commission mandates only pure cashmere sweaters can be labeled “100 Percent Cashmere.” If that’s not indicated on the garment, move along.

    How to Wash It

    Step-by-step guidance from knitwear designer Margaret O’Leary

    Launder cashmere at home, always inside out. Washing adds moisture back to the fabric; dry cleaning stiffens it.

    Use the delicate cycle. Two teaspoons of The Laundress Wool & Cashmere Shampoo is enough.

    Put your garment in the dryer for five minutes on the coolest setting. Then spread it on a flat towel to air dry.4.

    Never hang anything made of cashmere. Hangers will stretch the fibers.

            What is Cashmere?

            This special yarn comes from rare fibres found in the undercoat of cashmere goats. These particular goats live mainly in Mongolia and China, a region characterised by wide temperature fluctuations between seasons.

            Cashmere goats adapted to this harsh climate by developing a double fleece: an outer guard layer that protects the undercoat from water, and an undercoat made of ultra-fine hairs with strong insulating properties. This keeps the goats warm in the winter but not too hot in the summer.

    The next stage is for the fibres to be dyed and spun into yarns, which are widely used in the garment industry, either knitted into jumpers and similar products, or woven into fabrics for premium suits or accessories.

    The most respected companies for yarn processing and for knitting are located in Italy and Scotland. However in recent years the world has witnessed the emergence of lower cost and often much lower quality producers from China.

    Cashmere, when authentic and of high quality, is extremely expensive due to the difficult production process and its scarcity. On average a cashmere goat generates only 150 grams of fibres per year and it takes 300 grams to make a jumper. In total only 6000 tonnes of cashmere are produced per year, a very small fraction compared to 1.3 million tonnes for normal wool.

            Why is Cashmere better than wool?

        Warmth – Its insulation capacity is three times higher than wool (up to eight times for the very best cashmere), making it perfect for maintaining your body temperature. The result is a yarn that keeps you warm but not hot.

        Softness – The diameter of cashmere fibres is very small, creating a very fine texture, the softest of all yarns.

        No itchiness – For the same reason, the density of fibres are much higher than wool, and therefore the texture is not scratchy. This gives a great feeling when wearing cashmere directly on the skin or when touching a jumper.

        Lightness – Given its insulating qualities, cashmere jumpers can be lighter than those made of wool and still keep perfect body temperature.

    Woolen cashmere series are the best sustainable and renewable fibre with virtues to protect the user from the surrounding rudiments. Be it knit or woven, woolen fibres make long lasting apparels. Fibres from these garments will not peel and will retain its form for many years, even for generations. Not every goat is cashmere, and this is what makes pashmina cashmere wool a unique and valuable fibre. More than 3000 tons of cashmere is made every year with the majority of them from Mongolia, followed by Australia, New Zealand, Iran, and Afghanistan.

    In todays environment, customers are becoming major advocates of the back-story principle. They want to be informed about the story behind the stuff they purchase. If the companies are transparent about their manufacturing processes and principles, they are satisfied that they are buying an ethical product. They want to wear cashmere fabrics in a way that fits their style, budget, and conscience.

    Swiss consumers buy more of cashmere fabrics, but also increasingly question how it is being produced. Imports of cashmere into Switzerland have increased drastically, during the recent past. Worsted cashmere series are made from non-allergenic natural goat fibres. They are animal-friendly, sustainable, and do not wrinkle. They posses durability with little or no pilling, and becomes softer with the age. The finest quality of cashmere fabrics are based on the purity of the yarn and tightness of the knit. Longer strands give the garment a flatter and tighter feel. The quality of the fabric gets enhanced with the strands getting fuller and softer with every wash.

    Price of Wales, Prince Charles has launched a campaign for promoting consumer awareness of wool stating it, a natural and sustainable fibre. As per the campaign, the company which makes products with more than 50% of its content in wool will be using their logo and promotional material.

    The luxurious fibres from the pashmina goats have inspired many designers, and are preferred by consumers who are luxury lovers. With all the exposure of ecological living, sustainable cashmere fabrics are sought by consumers who want to own luxurious clothing line and also remain eco-chic.

    Do I Need A Clothes Brush?

    Your favourite cashmere overcoat or wool blazer: investment pieces, no doubt of value and almost certainly not items of clothing you want to wash frequently. A run of colour or loss of shape are all perils of the washing machine and dry cleaner. So how to maintain a dirt, dust and hair free wardrobe? A lint roller? No – it won’t effectively remove anything more than superficial fluff. The optimal solution is to invest in a good quality brush cashmere series, to remove deep rooted dust, dirt and debris. We detailed this in Ape’s Ten Commandments of Style – it’s a simple step which ensures longevity.

    A 100% wool suit, for instance, takes much more care to maintain than a poor-quality, synthetic version. But it’s worth it. You should really brush the former after each time of wearing – it only take a couple of minutes. We all know that washing a finely tailored wool suit is a no go but as alluded to earlier, avoid dry-cleaning too. The chemical process is proven to weaken fabric. You lose the bounce and the finish – they become shiny, flat and lifeless. Instead, try a gentle steam in the bathroom for a freshen up or air by a window then brush it plump up the fibres and restore the fabric’s lustre. Use dry cleaning as a last resort, and a good one at that.

    What Makes A Good Clothes Brush

    Often made with boar or horse hair, natural bristle clothes brushes are the best you can buy. Cheaper alternatives are often made of synthetic nylon and have less ‘give’, resulting in a harsher scrubbing or scratching of delicate fabrics. A natural bristle offers better longevity too, potentially lasting a lifetime whereas a synthetic bristle will wear out quicker.

    For exceptionally soft, finely woven or velvet clothing you might wish to use a velvet-faced lint brush. Even more gentle than a natural bristle, a velvet-faced lint brush will pick up fluff, hair and other clinging particles. Try and avoid using tape, as it can leave marks. If you have time, by all means pick away at fluff and hair with your fingers but it will take a while. Specifically with regards to velvet – never brush against the lie of the fabric or it will mark. And ideally, use a dedicated velvet clothes brush such as this clothes brush.

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  4 Different Types of Roofing Sheets: Pros and Cons
Posted by: gvbfgbnn - 11-26-2021, 01:10 AM - Forum: My Forum - No Replies

4 Different Types of Roofing Sheets: Pros and Cons

    Both aspiring and existing property owners should pay attention to one important part of the roof. We are pertaining to what we call roofing sheets. More than the visual value that they add, they are installed for a reason. Different types of roofing sheets shield the actual roof from external elements. When mounted correctly, it helps prevent leaks and potential damages to prolong your roof’s lifespan.

    Roof sheeting has different variations that can match your needs and requirements. Each has its own pros and cons that you can take into consideration. Remember that roofs are a huge financial investment so it is better to be hands-on. Hence, it is a vital step to know what types of roofing sheets are available before you decide.

    At Sterling Roofing Group, we commit to deliver the highest quality of service that you deserve. Since 1996, we have been around the industry providing superior roofing products and services to homeowners and commercial property owners. Because we value our clients, we give full attention down to the smallest details.

    Today, let us talk about the different types of roofing sheets. Know what to expect and see what options you have.

    1. Corrugated

    From the word corrugated, this type of roofing sheet has repetitive folds. The corrugation that it forms intensifies the roof’s integrity. This option is for people looking for environmental-friendly materials.

    This is widely used for various purposes due to its proven durability (as compared to its flat counterparts). It is ideal for garages, sheds, carports, porches, etc.

    You can narrow down your choices under these categories by choosing which material and finish you would like to go for. We have highlighted four types of corrugated roofing sheets to expand your options:

    Galvanized Steel Sheet

    It is a carbon steel sheet coated with zinc produced through continuous hot dip process. This can be used either bare or painted.

    Polyester Painted Sheets

    This is most commonly used for agricultural structures due to its medium-length lifespan. Although it is a cheaper option, it needs to be maintained every five or ten years. Installation and maintenance are crucial for it is prone to scratches.

    PVC Plastisol

    Plastisol is a steel sheet that treated with a primer paint. PVC is then rolled on top of it. Known for its durability, PVC plastisol coated sheets do not fade or scratch easily. It is expected to last up to 30 years. It is also weather-resistant and lightweight.


    Corrugated roofing sheet made from bitumen is waterproof. It is long-lasting and highly durable.

    2. Sheet Metal

    Sheet metal roofing sheets are similar to the corrugated ones in terms of composition. However, they have significantly fewer curves manufactured from metals like stainless steel or aluminum. Metal roofing sheets have a protective layer made up of zinc. Then, they are reinforced with another layer of chromatic acid that prevents rusting.

    Characterized by superior roof coverage, they are mostly used for garages, backyard sheds, garden buildings, household cladding, industrial roofing, and many more. Despite its strength and durability, they are lightweight and easy to install. It comes in various finishes and colors to match your requirements.

    Sheet metal roofing sheets are extremely weatherproof with excellent insulating capabilities. The standard thickness of the material prevents leakages.

    You can expand a metal roofing sheet’s lifespan by coating it with aluminum asphalt.

    3. Polycarbonate

    These types of roofing sheets are often used in large commercial and industrial buildings due to its promising performance. Polycarbonate is fire-resistant. Although it is more durable than other roofing materials, they have the tendency to crack.

    Made from high-impact polypropylene resin, polycarbonate roofing sheets are lightweight, extremely durable, and easy to cut. Being pH neutral, these roofing sheets have the ability to withstand contrasting temperatures while maintaining stability.  Even harsh chemicals have no effect on them. Another advantage of polycarbonate is that it could act as an insulator reducing the heat that passes through the roof.

    Property owners can choose from a wide variety of special finishes like UV protection, corrosive inhibitors, and anti-static. Apart from this, there is also a variety of customizable colors available.

    4. Plastic

    Colored plastic roofing sheets may be the least durable among the choices you have but it has its own advantages. Most people use the plastic material for smaller structures and for temporary constructions. Its durability is dependent on the type of plastic that you will use for the roofing sheet. The more robust the material is, the more it will cost. Another good thing about it is that it costs a lot cheaper than slate roofs. Besides, we also has clear roofing sheets.


    It is a good idea to explore what other roofing materials are out there. Expanding your knowledge will help you come up with more informed decisions as an existing or future property owner. Moreover, it also empowers you as an individual giving value to your hard-earned money.

    Apart from the traditional roofing materials like shingles, tiles, felt, etc., there are other options in the form of various types of roofing sheets. The next time you plan for a new roofing construction for your property, you can always go back to this list and see what material fits you best.

    While it is good to be familiar with what materials are available, it is equally important to hire a trusted roofing contractor. Your convenience and security rely on your ability to partner with a company that will treat your property as their own. Hire only experts that have proven reputation in the industry.

    Are you looking for a reliable roofing contractor for your roofing requirements?

    Sterling Roofing Group is a team of professionals trained to deliver highest-quality roofing service. From inspections, repairs, installations, and replacements, you can rely on our excellent workmanship coupled with the use of premium materials.

    FRP Panels

    Fiberglass Reinforced Panels (FRP)

    Commonly called fiberglass reinforced plywood, fiberglass reinforced plastic, FRP panels, or simply FRP.  Fiberglass composites have successfully been used in the transportation, construction, marine, military, and building industries since 1965.  But only in the last 25 years have the unique qualities of FRP panels become better known, and the material more widely used in countless industries and applications.

    Structural FRP Panels are Seamless, Durable, Strong & Abuse-Resistant

    Our fiberglass panels are available in sizes up to 10 feet high by 58 feet long.  Your choice of a variety of core materials are reinforced on each side by a fiberglass woven roving laminate which is then fused under heat and pressure to form a smooth, high gloss structural panel.  The FRP panel interior is coated with a white polyester resin, interior continuous film, or gel coat finish, which provides a seamless surface that resists impact and abrasions from forklifts, pallets and shifting cargo.  For transportation applications an interior scuff plate and/or multiple layers of fiberglass woven roving are available for additional reinforcement.  This unique manufacturing process produces am FRP panel of uniform thickness that's attractive, extremely durable and weather resistant.

    FRP Panels are easily maintained & repaired

    Fiber-Tech FRP panels save maintenance time and cost because they do not pit or corrode like metals.  These FRP panels are virtually unaffected by normal wear and tear.  Fiber-Tech’s FRP panels are smooth, extremely attractive, and easily maintained. The standard gel coat exterior finish is quickly cleaned and is resistant to fading, yellowing or chalking

    Most FRP damage can be easily repaired, and at considerably less cost than alternative components such as sheet/post, steel, and exotic metals.  Fiber-Tech’s Maintenance & Repair Manual provides detailed, step-by-step identification and instructio for repairing damaged FRP panels.

    Corrosion Resistant FRP Equipment for Pulp and Paper, 2018 PEERS

    Since the late 1950’s Fiber Reinforced Plastic (FRP) composites have been used to combat corrosion in pulp and papermaking processes. In many applications FRP is now known to be the best material of construction due to its reliability, performance, length of service, and cost compared to other materials of construction. Today FRP based on epoxy vinyl ester resin (EVER) is used to construct vessels, piping, bleach towers, tanks, washer drums, drum covers, hoods, ducts, and scrubbers for demanding mill environments. This paper serves to update an earlier paper and will outline how FRP outperforms nickel alloys and other materials in suitable processes [1]. It will illustrate how to design, assemble and maintain an FRP system so as to deliver its best performance and avoid costly mistakes. Details about ASTM C581corrosion testing and data comparing the performance of FRP to other materials will be reviewed. Case histories for process equipment at various North American mills will be presented. These case histories serve to confirm material selection, design criteria, and performance of FRP machine in real world environments.

TAPPI conference proceedings and presentations, technical papers, and publication articles provide technical and management data and solutions on topics covering the Pulp, Paper, Tissue, Corrugated Packaging, Flexible Packaging, Nanotechnology and Converting Industries.

Simply select the quantity, add to your cart and your conference paper, presentation or article will be available for immediate download.

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  LOOK Excellence winter cycle clothing – first look
Posted by: gvbfgbnn - 11-26-2021, 01:07 AM - Forum: My Forum - No Replies

LOOK Excellence winter cycle clothing – first look

    This full-length glove is another item decorated with the brand’s signature Mondrian-esque stylings.

    Of greater interest to the cyclist attempting to stave off frostbite in the recent plummeting temperatures, however, will be its claims for insulation and water resistance.

    For the first, LOOK would doubtless highlight their use of a silicone-coated Hipora fabric as a membrane. Elsewhere, they’ve deployed Thinsulate fabric, which we’re hoping will serve us well in the weeks and months ahead.

    The Winterfall glove has a robust design with gel padding in the palm and a coating on the thumb, index and middle finger, presumably for grip.

    There’s a deep cuff, secured with a velcro fastener, and the back of the thumb is covered with a velour-like substance, which should serve well as a nose wipe.

    Reflective detailing is in plentiful supply on the back, including the LOOK logo below the index finger, and a block design on the index finger.

    What Is Taffeta Fabric?

    Taffeta is a crisp, lightweight fabric that is commonly used to make a variety of types of high-end women's apparel. This plain woven fabric is smooth to the touch, and it can be made from a variety of different materials.

    The word "taffeta" is derived from tafta, which means "twisted woven" in Persian. While it's true that taffeta fabric is made by twisting yarn as it is woven, many other fabrics are also made with this method, which means that the starched and shape-retaining qualities of taffeta are more representative of its unique attributes than its name.

    Traditionally, taffeta was made from silk, but with the advent of synthetic fibers in the 20th century, textile manufacturers started making this fabric from materials like rayon and polyester. While it's still possible to find silk taffeta fabric, it's much more common to find versions of this fabric that are made from polyester.

    While the term "taffeta" has been used to describe lightweight silk garments for close to a thousand years, it's unclear whether the taffeta of the distant past resembled the type of fabric that goes by this name today. This fabric shows up multiple times throughout history; for instance, it's reported that tabby cats were originally named for their resemblance to a certain type of striped taffeta fabric.

    Taffeta was also used in certain aviation experiments during the 18th century. In recent times, taffeta fabric has even been used in artificial blood vessel experiments due to its paper-thin texture and durability.

    One of taffeta fabric's most notable attributes is its shape retention. Many other thin fabrics tend to lose their shape as they are worn, but taffeta's starched texture makes it possible to shape this fabric into a number of different forms that don't deform or become distorted over the course of an evening.

    When taffeta is worn, it produces a relatively noisy rustle due to its crispness. Depending on the type of taffeta that is worn, this fabric may produce an iridescent effect when its wearer moves, or its paper-thin texture may be caught on every current of air that moves through a room. This fabric's unique qualities have earned it a position in public perception as a luxury textile, and this perception has persisted even as traditional taffeta fabric materials, such as silk, have been widely replaced with polyester and rayon.

    How Is Taffeta Fabric Made?

    This type of fabric is made with a variety of different techniques depending on the type of material that is used in its production. Silk production, for instance, involves the cultivation and harvesting of silkworm cocoons. This process is highly environmentally sustainable, but it results in the deaths of silkworms.

    Once silkworm cocoons are boiled, they are unraveled or "reeled," and the resulting thread is then soaked in a mild, non-toxic solution. Finally, this thread is spun into yarn, and it may be dyed at this point. However, certain types of taffeta fabric are dyed after a bolt of fabric has already been woven.

    While some taffeta fabric is made from semi-synthetic substances like cuprammonium rayon, it's much more common to find this product made from polyester. Since polyester is a fully synthetic textile fiber, its production process varies widely from that which is used to make silk.

    Polyester is derived from a compound called ethylene, which is a constituent part of petroleum. This ethylene is reacted with dimethyl terephthalate at a high temperature, which produces a monomer alcohol. This monomer is then combined with terephthalic acid to produce the polymer known as polyester.

    This molten substance is then extruded through a slot and allowed to cool into long ribbons. These ribbons are then chipped, and they are melted again. Next, this molten polyester is extruded through a spinneret, and the resulting strands of textile fiber are allowed to cool before they are stretched in a process called "drawing." Lastly, the drawn polyester fibers are dyed or subjected to flame retardant or antistatic treatments.

    Once raw textile fiber is acquired, taffeta fabric can be formed with either hand weaving or an industrial weaving machine. A special twisting procedure is used to provide the crisp and lightweight qualities of this fabric. Depending on the type of taffeta fabric that is produced, it may be dyed before or after weaving.

    The Why and How of Stretch Fabrics

    It is common to associate stretch fabric with spandex, however the story of what makes fabric stretchy is a bit more complex. In this article, I hope to touch on some aspects of why and how fabrics can be stretchy for anyone interested in considering fabric and fibers more closely.

    I work with fabric everyday at Refiber Designs. From my experience, I want to share some of my understanding of stretch fabric and to explain everything as plainly as possible to make it accessible to any curious mind with or without a sewing background. I hope this article provides you with some new insights about stretch fabric.

    Properties of Stretch

    Let’s start by defining the 2 main aspects of stretch in relation to fabric:

    1) the fabric’s ability to extend in length without breakage or damage.

    This property is denoted by a percentage to communicate that a fabric’s length can increase by that amount. Stretch percentage for knit fabrics will be for the horizontal or vertical directions of the fabric. (For example, if you have a piece of fabric that is 100 cm in width that has 30% horizontal stretch, you should be able to stretch the width of the fabric up to 130 cm without harming the fabric.) This percentage is not always provided by retailers, but is still the standard way of notating stretch.

    2) the fabric’s recovery, ability to spring back to its original shape after extending in length.

    Recovery describes the pull-back when you stretch a fabric that helps the fabric return to the natural state that it was in before it was stretched. Often this is where spandex come into the equation.

    How Fabrics Extend in Length:

    In order to understand how fabric extends in length we will need to look closer at its structure. For now, let's ignore any innate stretch in the yarns within the fabric; it would only enhance the effects that we explore in this section. Without the stretch within the yarn, we are left with the mechanical stretch due to the way that the yarn is arranged within the constructed fabric.

    Taslon is a fabric made of polyamide filament or polyester filament and polyamide (polyester) air textured silk.

    The warp is made of 70D nylon filament, and the weft has 160D, 250D, 320D air deformation yarn of nylon, as well as single latitude, double latitude (250D×2) and three latitude (160D×3).

    The weave has plain and variational weave (small jacquard), 2/2 twill.Taslon can also be divided into nylon Taslon and polyester Taslon,

    Warp and weft have one direction of the raw material is the air variable filament (nylon air variable filament or polyester air variable filament).

    Mainly divided into two categories: nylon Taslon and polyester Taslon series.

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  Why we have a love-hate relationship with electric scooters
Posted by: gvbfgbnn - 11-26-2021, 01:04 AM - Forum: My Forum - No Replies

Why we have a love-hate relationship with electric scooters

    Some cities are rolling out ambitious electric scooter sharing schemes, while others have banned them outright. Just how green, and how safe, are e-scooters?

        You might have started seeing more of them on streets and in parks, gliding past you with a faint electric hum. As lockdowns lift and people avoid public transport, e-scooters – stand-up, electrically powered scooters – are becoming more popular.
        The easing of lockdowns has highlighted the importance of individual, emission-free, socially distanced transport as governments try to prevent spikes in car use and pollution. But the story of e-scooters is one of both a popular tech gadget and a contentious form of transport. While they offer a seemingly fun and environmentally friendly option for short journeys, a range of questions about their safety and sustainability have emerged in the past two years.

        So how did e-scooters go from risky tech novelty to a green travel solution for the coronavirus recovery? And are they really so good for the planet?

        E-scooters have been available to privately buy for over a decade but many remain prohibitively expensive. It took the affordable, accessible option of shared, dockless models – which can be rented by the minute using a smartphone app – for their popularity to skyrocket. In 2018, shared e-scooter startups Bird and Lime rapidly introduced them to US cities (sometimes without permission). Soon after, the companies – along with a proliferation of other startups, including European-based Voi and Tier – began to rapidly expand across cities internationally.
        Now, e-scooter sharing schemes are available in more than 100 cities, across at least 20 countries, from Chile to South Korea to New Zealand – although Europe and the US continue to dominate in terms of use. Research suggests that by 2024, 4.6 million shared e-scooters will be in operation worldwide, up from 774,000 in 2019.

        But with the rise of e-scooters has been the rise of related accidents – some of them fatal. On pavements, e-scooters pose dangers to pedestrians and wheelchair users – and particularly people who are blind and partially sighted. But using the scooters on roads without sufficient infrastructure such as cycle lanes is also risky, especially due to lack of regulations. Even when not in use, e-scooters can be hazardous: most sharing services are dockless, resulting in scooters being discarded on footpaths, causing obstructions.

    Is Citycoco Legal in European Countries

    Citycoco is a Harley style electric scooter with unique shape and strong performance, which is becoming more and more popular. Many buyers will have a question before placing an order, is Citycoco legal in my country? Can it ride on the road?

    Different countries in Europe have different regulations for citycoco. So you need to comply with these regulations to make it legal to ride a city coco scooter

    We checked the regulations of some European countries on whether citycoco Harley scooters can legally ride on the road.

    Citycoco in Germany

    In Germany, scooters with speeds exceeding 20 km/h require a driver’s license. And the owner must be at least 15 years old. The driving license is mandatory.

    According to stVZO regulations, the scooter must be equipped with necessary lighting equipment. A helmet is required when riding.

    On the sidewalk, the riding speed is not allowed to exceed 6km/h.

    At the time of registration, you do not need any other proof to obtain insurance and license plate number except for the COC. The license plate will allow the authorities to easily identify vehicle owners and insurance companies.

    Citycoco in France

    In France, the law of Citycoco scooters depends on its speed. When buying this electric scooter, you need to choose different speed versions according to your needs

    What Is an E-Bike? Here’s Everything You Need to Know

    The first thing you should know about electric bicycle is that they’re here to stay. Electric bike sales jumped by an incredible 145 percent from 2019 to 2020 alone, according to the market research firm NPD Group. It’s a nearly $244 billion industry as of last year, and there’s no sign of a slowdown.

    Some view the rise of e-bikes as a threat, as though standard bikes will go the way of the penny-farthing once everyone goes electric. But fear not: E-bikes aren’t here to rob us of our human-powered way of life. In fact, they may very well enhance it—especially as travel and commuting habits change following the global pandemic and shift of work commuting. So as we roll our way into peak riding season, here’s everything you need to know about the electric revolution.

    1. E-bikes make pedaling easier.

    Generally speaking, e-bikes are bicycles with a battery-powered “assist” that comes via pedaling and, in some cases, a throttle. When you push the pedals on a pedal-assist e-bike, a small motor engages and gives you a boost, so you can zip up hills and cruise over tough terrain without gassing yourself. Called “pedelecs,” they feel just like conventional bikes—but better, says Ed Benjamin, senior managing director at the consulting firm eCycleElectric. “You control your speed with your feet, like with a regular bike,” he says. “You just feel really powerful and accelerate easily.”

    In addition to the pedal-assist feature, some e-bikes come with a throttle that engages the motor with the press of a button. These belong to a separate class of e-bike that, obviously, doesn’t offer a pure cycling experience; they’re also illegal in some municipalities. Interestingly, Benjamin says, people who aren’t already “cyclists” tend to gravitate toward throttle bikes at first, but then turn around and choose a pedal-assist for their next purchase.

    2. They go pretty fast… to a point.

    The harder you pedal, the bigger the boost, the faster you’ll ride—to a point. Electric city bike lets you hum along at a brisk clip, but they aren’t motorcycles. You’ll never hammer down the road at 45 mph. The motor is governed to stop propelling you further when you hit 20 to 28 miles per hour, depending on the bike. So you’ll save time on your commute (I shave about three minutes off a five-mile trip) but still enjoy the scenery.

    That’s because, like it or not, e-bikes are fun to ride. Long, slow climbs become quicker. Lunchtime rides become more interesting because you can ride farther and see trails that otherwise wouldn’t have been possible in such a short time. And whole new trail systems are accessible as the assist opens up terrain that would be too steep, loose, rocky, or brutal on a standard pedal bike. In short, rather than be afraid of e-mountain bikes, we should see them for what they are: a new tool. In the same way you’d choose an enduro bike for shredding supergnar descents or a cross-country bike for all-day endurance epics, an e-mountain bike is simply another arrow in the quiver for situations when standard pedal bikes might not be as much fun.

    For clarity, the electric mountain bike in this review are electric-motor-equipped bicycles that only go forward if you pedal them. Officially, they are categorized as Class 1 e-bikes, which means they have no throttle and a top-assisted speed of 20 miles per hour. (Class 2 and Class 3 varieties have throttles and/or different top-assist speeds. We’re limiting our coverage to Class 1 because most of the advocacy for trail use is currently for these models.) Though critics like to try and characterize all e-bikes as motorcycles, this couldn’t be further from reality. All of these bikes generate less than one horsepower, and they do it only when you are pedaling, akin to riding with a strong tailwind.

    I took a fleet of the latest out on a range of trails throughout New Mexico and was amazed by how much these machines have advanced since my first ride back in 2013. Like all technology, these bikes are going to continue improving. But if you’re in the market and can swallow the high price tag, I feel they have come far enough that they’re well worth buying.

    The batteries are the most important electric bicycle parts, because (if you don't do any pedaling) they contain all the power that will drive you along. Typical electric bike batteries make about 350–500 W of power (that's about 35–50 volts and 10 amps), which is about a quarter as much as you need to drive an electric toaster. In theory, you could use any kind of battery on a bicycle. In practice, however, you want to use something that stores lots of power without being too heavy—or you'll be using half your power just moving the battery along! That tends to rule out heavy lead-acid batteries like the ones that start cars, though some electric bikes do use them. Lightweight lithium-ion batteries, similar to those used in laptop computers, mobile (cellular) phones, and MP3 players, are now the most popular choice, though they're more expensive than older rechargeable battery technologies such as nickel-cadmium ("nicad&quotWink. Typical batteries will give your bicycle a range of 10–40 miles between charges (depending on the terrain) and a top speed of 10–20 mph (which is about the maximum most countries allow for these vehicles by law). You can extend the range by pedaling or free-wheeling some of the time.

    Electric motor

    In the theoretical electric bike we considered up above, we had the dynamo/motor driving the back wheel directly, simply by pressing on the tire. Most electric bikes work a different way. They have compact electric motors built into the hub of the back or front wheel (or mounted in the center of the bike and connected to the pedal sprocket). Take a look at the hub of an electric bike and probably you'll see it's much fatter and bulkier than on a normal bike. You can read more about how these motors work in our main article about hub motors.

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  The Difference Between Woven and Non Woven Bags
Posted by: gvbfgbnn - 11-26-2021, 01:00 AM - Forum: My Forum - No Replies

The Difference Between Woven and Non Woven Bags


    The Difference Between Woven and Non Woven Bags

            With the global fight against the use of plastic bags, commonly known as paper bags, people are starting to look at plastic bags alternatives. As a result, recycle bag printing has become a lucrative business around the globe. An example of this industry’s products are woven and non woven bag. These come in handy whenever you are going grocery shopping especially when they are even more durable than plastic bags.

            However, many people may not realise the differences between these two types of bags. In the world of promotional gifts, they are a staple product that companies use to promote their brand. In this article, we break everything down to give you a clear picture of the woven and non-woven bags.

            Woven and Non-Woven Bags- What is the Difference?

            Both woven and non woven bags are great and can both be customized. Each bag has its unique benefits and characteristics. But what is the difference between the two?

            Woven bags are usually made from fabric that has been woven together. This gives the fabric strength. Usually, individual threads are joined to make one piece of material. The process is usually repeated so as to come up with a strong piece of cloth. The cloth is then used to make the woven bags.

            Non woven bags, on the other hand, are usually manufactured. Although they are also made of fabrics, the fabrics are usually entangled together rather than being woven. This can be done mechanically, chemically or thermally depending on the product that is being used.

            It is important to note that both woven and non-woven bags are a part of the recycle bag printing business. This is because they are both made from recycled materials. The only difference comes in the way they are built.

            Woven Bags
            Woven bag can be made in a variety of weaving styles. However, three common weave styles are used. These are twill, satin weave, and plain weave. Each weaving style is unique and the style to be used will be dependent on the kind of bag being made.

            Woven bags are a classic and have been around for quite some time. However, it is interesting to see the emerging trends in Singapore and the rest of the world. One major trend is the bucket bag that can be used for grocery shopping as well as a handbag. Woven bags can also be used as tote bags, clutch bags, and even satchel bags.

                    They are flexible and able to maintain their shape

                    They are reusable

                    They are suitable for machine washing


                    They act as carriers for bacteria and other germs

                    They are not suitable for meat and vegetables as these foods will come into direct contact with the bacteria

                    They are not water resistant

            Non Woven Bags

            Non woven bags are more versatile as compared to the woven bags. Because they are also made of fabric, they offer almost similar advantages. However, non woven bag printing in Singapore is more common because they are much more affordable. It is for this reason that they are mainly used in Arts and Crafts.

            A customised non woven bag is a major trend when it comes to these bags. This is especially true for companies and organisations that use them as promotional gifts that promote brand recognition. Non woven bags come with many customisations and printing options as compared to woven bags.



    Jumbo bags (also known as big bags, super sacks, bulk bags, FIBC) are large bags made from woven polypropylene (PP) fabric used to store and transport materials with loading weight from 500kg - 2500kg.

    FIBC bags are now more and more widely used in many large manufacturers in different fields such as industry, agriculture, pharmaceuticals, chemicals, ....

    Despite of that, not many people understand the criteria to choose reasonable price jumbo bags which fully meet the requirements.

    Cost of Plastic Versus Mesh Bags

    Reviewing prices of online produce bag sales, a private consumer would pay about $.04 per bag if purchasing a quantity of about 2,000 thin-film plastic bags. However, supermarkets purchase in such volume that their cost is far less. According to an economic impact statement produced for Los Angeles County in 2010 and related to the county's 2012 ban on retailer use of plastic bags in unincorporated parts of the county, LA retailers spend about .01 per bag for the sturdier carry-out bags used at checkstands.

    In contrast to plastic produce bags, mesh bag that can be laundered and reused countless times cost significantly more per bag. Reviewing online prices shows costs of about $.75 to $5.00 per bag depending on the brand and type.

    The cost of change

    Several major supermarkets, including multinationals Tesco and Walmart, have already promised to reduce the amount of plastic packaging they sell their products in. Alongside Coca-Cola, drinks manufacturers Pepsi, food and cleaning multinational Unilever, food producer Nestle and cosmetics company L’Oreal have also pledged to ensure all their packaging is either reusable, recyclable or compostable by 2025.

    But despite these commitments, much of the food and drinks industry is still trying to work out how it will meet the targets it has helped to set for itself. Some experts fear that without the right approach, this rush to banish plastics from our shopping baskets will make the goods we buy more expensive.

    “It is not as simple as ‘plastic is bad’ so let’s use something else,” warns Eliot Whittington, policy programme director at the University of Cambridge’s Institute for Sustainability Leadership, where he advises drinks manufacturers on reducing waste. “It will require a complete change in the way we use product packaging at the moment. Most packaging is now used just once and thrown away. We need to move away from that. It needs some form of leadership from government.”


        For over a decade, the move towards sustainability has been the biggest buzz. Remove, Reduce, Recycle, Renew and Re-use: everyone knows the five R’s of Recycling. As cartons packaging evolves, more consumers are now seeking Eco-friendly and sustainable packaging. Brands are beginning to adopt new sustainable packaging practices in order to opt for more convenient and affordable cartons that have no impact on the environment.

        Sustainable packaging is a journey that starts with focus on saving the natural resources by material reduction and package optimization. With the ultimate goal to reduce a carton packaging’s overall environmental impact, we at Netpak look at the entire life cycle of the packaging – from the raw materials being used to its actual disposal.

        By offering our clients “green” packaging options, such as paperboard that is entirely 100% recyclable, we can help reduce waste. However,  we understand that sustainable packaging doesn’t end at the actual paperboard! Not only do we use a variety of odourless, water-based glues and inks that are Health Canada approved for boxed food packaging, but we also ensure to operate in the most efficient manner in order reduce energy consumption and resources.


        Reduces Carbon Footprint

        The clearest feature of sustainable cartons is their eco-friendly nature. The packaging cartons are made with focus on recycling. This results in a diminished use of natural resources for production. The process used for production tends to be more efficient, further reducing precious resources, and resulting in least negative impact on the environment.

        Netpak undergoes annual third party environmental audits of our facility and operations.

        Most Versatile Form of Packaging Cartons

        Eco-friendly cartons are not just the most sustainable form of packaging, but also the most versatile form of packaging. With our ability at Netpak to adapt to different product types, shapes, and sizes, we bring sustainable packaging to a different level of versatility and creativity through enhanced printing. We use hot stamping and metallic inks to enhance the look of your packaging, as well as processes such as UV high gloss coating, embossing and various types of  laminations.

        The result is that sustainable packaging has found its way into some of the major markets we work with, including pharmaceuticals, electronics, food and beverage, as well as health and beauty!

        As Light as a Feather

        With the rise in sustainable packaging, it has suddenly become important to become creative with the design of lighter weight packaging without compromising quality. The lighter the unit, the lighter the load for transit, and in turn, lighter transit loads reduce the environmental impact of transportation.

        Luckily for you, Netpak provides customers with innovative printing options. Our Corrugated Fiberboard (Flute) is a great alternative and option to corrugated cardboard and provides an excellent source of fiber for recycling. Find out more about our Corrugated Fiberboard

        Improving the Value of Products & Businesses

        From cookie boxes to craft beer packaging and your favorite skincare packaging to your favorite coffee boxes, Netpak’s sustainable packaging options is adding value to various industries. Some consumers even choose to support companies because of their reputation for sustainable products and services. Companies are now starting to realize that their transition to sustainable packaging has improved their brand image and their company profits by reducing production time and transportation costs.

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Posted by: gvbfgbnn - 11-26-2021, 12:50 AM - Forum: My Forum - No Replies


    Height-adjustable desks are becoming increasingly popular in the office. And rightly so: height-adjustable desks allow for an uncomplicated change of working posture, from sitting to standing and back again. The investment in height-adjustable desks pays off as it can avoid preventable back complaints, increases performance, concentration and motivation of employees, and minimizes downtime. The smow furnishing experts have assembled essentials to consider when selecting in a sit-stand desk, and why they are so enormously advantageous for employees and employers.

    By nature, the human body functions best when it moves; however, especially in everyday office life, stationary sitting is the predominant position and this all too often leads to stiffening or joint wear and tear. It has long been established that well-adapted, ergonomic office chairs are essential in everyday office life; however, it is also important to regularly stand up in the course of the working day, including for prolonged periods. This does not mean that you should only stand, not only is that not necessarily healthy, but moreover it is not always possible. Much more, frequent changes of position is recommended, changes from which the body and brain profit. The occasional change of position and posture is essential for a lively mind. Some experts recommend sitting for 60 % of the working time, 30 % standing and actively moving during the remaining 10 % of the working day; others propose 50:25:25. Regardless of your preferred option it is clear that a healthy combination of sitting, standing and active moving should be encouraged and undertaken.

    The LASI (L?nderschutz für Arbeitsschutz und Sicherheitstechnik) manual “Ergonomic design of continuous standing work" (LASI (ed.), LV 50, March 2009) lists numerous design measures to make the workplace more ergonomic and health-promoting, including, for example, changing tasks, alternating between standing and sitting work, active break times, appropriate work postures, and therefore options not only in the employees control but which also underscore the responsibility of the employer. Standing-sitting desks have an extremely positive effect on workplace ergonomics - and that without the need for major alterations. Following a quick transition period, you and your employees will realise the many advantages a height-adjustable desk can bring in so many areas.


            While it is understood that regular exercise can compensate for sitting during the working day, if you sit for many hours every day, over time sport alone will not be able to fully compensate. Physical activity in the workplace is essential. If you stand up while working you are doing your health a service: studies have shown that prolonged sitting has a negative effect on the cardiovascular system. In particular the so-called HDL level (high density lipoproteins) decreases when sitting, and the risk of heart attack consequently increases. The reason is that HDL transports excess cholesterol to the liver in order to keep the blood vessels free; however, if this function is restricted because the productivity of the HDL level has been reduced, it can lead to calcification of the arteries. In the worst case, this can lead to deadly diseases such as heart attacks or strokes, which are still among the most frequent causes of death in Europe. Height-adjustable desks and thus a healthy HDL level through sufficient movement during the day can thereby positively influence your health.


            Regular standing and exercise are important; however, standing up all day alone is not a solution. Much more it is essential that the regeneration capabilities of the spine remain activated. This is the case when the spine and muscles regularly move and thus stay supple. It is therefore important to regularly change position, and for all to stand, because when you are sitting, the muscle activity in your legs is virtually zero. Over prolonged periods this can result in muscle breakdown and negative consequences for the musculoskeletal system. In the worst case scenario this can result in bone degeneration, something that is very difficult to reverse. In addition, the back and neck muscles relax significantly when you regularly switch between a sitting and standing position.


            As far as the spine, ankles, and knees are concerned, a height-adjustable desk is a contemporary and ergonomic solution: breaking the length of the sitting period not only keeps body and mind busy over the entire working day - and beyond - it also keeps you healthier in the long term, as the spine, ankles, and knees are significantly protected. Complications of the back, neck, and shoulder area as well as in the joints are quickly reduced with a height adjustable desk. Acute back problems, which are becoming increasingly common at ever younger ages, can be caused by stress, mental problems or, very often, the wrong posture. Stand-up working solutions can help!

            In the working day there are regularly situations in which important decisions have to be made quickly. Ideally, the mind should be alert and focused to react quickly. According to experts, when standing up human brain activity increases by up to 20 % resulting in significantly faster, higher-quality decision-making processes, even at the end of a long, tiring working day. A stand-up desk is therefore of great advantage if you have to work in a very concentrated fashion for many hours. In addition, employees generally become fitter, more open-minded, and more flexible through a height-adjustable desk.


            Both in terms of preventing back problems and cardiovascular disease, height-adjustable desks can be very positive. In addition, they can also promote long-term health: studies have shown that regular long periods of sitting restrict the body's ability to break down glucose with the help of insulin: when muscles are not used regularly the muscle cells become insensitive to insulin, resulting in less sugar utilisation and thus less energy. Such a lack of exercise can therefore be a contributing factor in the development of diseases such as Type 2 diabetes. If you switch to a sit-stand desk, you boost energy production and glucose breakdown.


            While sitting, the human body consumes only about 1 kcal per minute, while in parallel, leg activity decreases and the blood levels deteriorate temporarily. In contrast, a stroll during a lunch break consumes at least three times as many calories as when sitting, which is why occasional standing and exercise phases are strongly recommended. For this, stand-sit desks are perfect: they also make a valuable contribution to health beyond the break, and can prevent you from becoming overweight while at the same time working more efficiently.

            7. ... CREATES TIME

            Increased efficiency through highly productive work saves time in the long term. It has been estimated that height-adjustable desks increase efficiency by at least 10 %, resulting in a good deal of extra time in the year. In addition, absenteeism through visits to the doctor due to conditions caused by permanent sitting is reduced, resulting in renewed working hours. This means that investing in a stand-up desk is not only an investment in the health of the employee, but also in efficiency of the company!

            8. ... SAVES MONEY

            Where employees can fully concentrate on their work, and are not constantly distracted by fatigue, neck tension or back pain, they will work more efficiently. Both the employees and the company benefit from this: according to a study by the Fraunhofer Institute for Industrial Engineering in Stuttgart, German companies incur an annual loss of 35 million Euros due to absenteeism and reduced productivity caused by back problems alone. Reduced absenteeism on account of better health thus also serves the profitability of a company. Therefore investing in height-adjustable desks saves money in the long term.


            A study by behavioural researchers at the University of Missouri indicates that people communicate significantly better when standing than when sitting. At standing meetings, the voice is fuller, more dynamic and thus more convincing, which significantly increases the overall performance of meetings or telephone calls. The impact of standing up, moving, and smiling - whether in a meeting with business partners, talking to customers or engaging with colleagues - should never be underestimated.

            10. ... MOTIVATES

                    Fewer external complications leads to less stress, frustration and chronic pain, which in turn creates more motivation in the workplace. If an employee feels healthier and fitter, if work progresses quicker and they achieve what they set out to do, then they also enjoy working more and can create more ideas and concepts and implement them with increased motivation. More exercise through standing up regularly leads to more employee satisfaction and efficiency.


                    At a standing workstation you can perform more tasks than you might expect: in fact, most of the work in the office is as easy to do at a high desk as it is at a low desk. However, it is advisable to get used to the change between sitting and standing while working. In the beginning activities such as telephone calls, research, mailing or brainstorming can be done while standing, so that gradually a change of habit can occur and the switch between standing and sitting work soon becomes habitual. Once you get used to working standing, it will soon be quite normal to complete all working tasks both seated and standing.


            Electronic height-adjustable desks are particularly suitable when quick and uncomplicated switching between a low and a high desk is required. On the one hand, manual cranking does not always prove to be ergonomic, on the other hand, manual adjustment is time consuming, especially when carried out several times a day. In addition, the motivation for a change decreases where this is associated with effort. The height adjustment of the desk height should proceed quietly, easily and as quickly as possible: in this respect, electric height adjustable desk is considered the most useful and ergonomic.

            The Cost of Building a Quality Stand Up Desk—It’s All About That Base

            Understandably, DIY’ers are always looking to find the lowest cost option for any components they need to buy versus make. In the case of electric height-adjustable bases, spending a little more is usually going to buy you a quieter, faster, heavier-lifting, more reliable standing desk frame, a longer warranty period, and a longer “stroke” (total distance between the lowest and highest desk setting, ideal for taller users).

            Bottom-end standing desk legs will run you around $200 to $500, almost all of them made in China. (Note that tariffs and post-pandemic inflation have hit a lot of these models recently.)

            Factory warranties among these units will run anywhere from zero (e.g. the FEZiBO standing desk base) to 15 years on top-quality American-made bases like iMovR’s Lander, Lander Lite and Freedom.

            Some of the US-based e-commerce sellers that source their bases in China have decided to tack on extra-long warranty periods to try and be competitive with the higher-quality US-manufactured competitors, but they are basically self-insuring against claims by hoping to sell at a higher volume. For example, both UpLift and Fully—in a permanent state of brinkmanship with one another—have recently raised their warranty terms to 15 years. Yet both are based on a Chinese-made Jiecang base that doesn’t carry a 15-year warranty from the factory. This is one of those caveat emptor moments where we have to caution our readers to read these warranties very carefully. Or save yourself the trouble and just read our primer on How to Compare Warranties on Standing Desks.

            The price pressure on Chinese-made frames brought on by tariffs, extraordinary increases in international shipping costs and other inflationary impacts of the pandemic has made a few American-made bases really competitive with them now. The UpLift V2 Desk Frame ($489) and Fully’s Jarvis Desk Frame ($494) have both gone up significantly in price with no improvement in the underlying technology.

            This compares to American-made bases like iMovR’s Freedom ($399) and their lightweight iMovR Studio 470 base ($329) desk frames. Before the pandemic, you would not have seen American bases selling for less than commodity frames like the Jiecang.

            More advanced models—typically made in the USA or Europe—feature higher transit speeds, tighter manufacturing tolerances, quieter motors, nicer handsets, better collision detection and tilt detection, and a greater range of height adjustability and desktop width accommodation. Some of them also allow you to expand into an L-shaped standing desk frame. These will typically run you anywhere from $650 for a 2-leg base to $1450 for a 3-leg base. Warranties on American-made bases tend to be 10 to 15 years, a reflection of how long they’re likely to work trouble-free compared to the cheaper Chinese frames.

            American and European-made bases are also likely to be more stable and to stay more stable over time compared to their wobblier Chinese brethren. To better understand the many factors that enter into the stability equation, from the length and weight of the feet to the precision manufacturing of the “glides” separating the tubes of the lifting columns, see our primer on Why Some Standing Desks Shake More Than Others.

            Planning to build a sit-to-stand desk or treadmill desk with your own desktop lumber? There are some great options available for standing desk legs. We’ll take you through the pluses and minuses of each model of electric standing desk frame.

            A monitor stand is a work from home essential that serves two important purposes: Giving you extra space for your accessories, cleaning off your desk, and making your workspace more ergonomic. By elevating your monitor closer to eye-level you won’t have to crane your neck for hours at a time, which can strain it over time.

            We’ve had hands-on testing time with a number of monitor stands, and collected the ones that are worth your time in this guide. All of these stands will work with any monitor, regardless of its size or who makes it. You can also use these stands to elevate a laptop — PC or Mac — or a monitor and computer if the stand is large enough.

            If your neck is sore at the end of each work day, or you want a little extra storage space on your desks, these are the monitor stands we recommend.

            The Best Dual Monitor Stand for Your Home Office

            Computer monitors have come a long way toward being more space saving and less cumbersome. Unlike early monitors that weighed dozens of pounds and took up nearly an entire desk, today’s flat-screen monitors are relatively lightweight. Computers can host two or more monitors with dual monitor stands, allowing each screen to be used for a different purpose. A home office’s primary monitor might be dedicated to spreadsheets or data entry, while a second monitor can display online research or show closed-circuit security camera feeds.

            Whatever a worker’s needs, the ability to connect a second monitor means not having to switch back and forth between applications on a single monitor. Plus, dual monitor stands help position multiple monitors at an optimal height for viewing while keeping the desk space less cluttered and more organized.

            The best dual monitor stand varies depending on work habits, work space size, and monitor sizes. Keep reading to learn about some of the key features to consider when shopping for a dual monitor stand, and find out why the following stands are well suited to a variety of work tasks and home offices.

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